Discs are like pillows that sit between each of the vertebrae in the spine. Their purpose is to act as shock absorbers to reduce stresses on the spine. A disc comprises of a harder exterior and a soft, jelly-like interior. Repetitive stresses or trauma may damage the outer layer of the disc, causing the jelly-like centre to move outwards. This is referred to as a disc bulge. Symptoms include neck pain with or without radiating symptoms to the shoulder, arm, hand or head. The location of pain is dependent on the affected level of injury, but it is usually one-sided, tender to the touch and associated with local muscle spasm. There may also be a restriction in movement of the neck. Depending on the severity of injury, pins and needles or numbness may radiate into the affected arm or hand. Symptoms are often worse in the morning, aggravated by obtaining prolonged positions and can be aggravated by cough or sneeze.
Wry neck is characterised by a sudden onset of pain and stiffness in the neck. It results from damage to a facet joint or disc, but is often of unknown cause. Most commonly a patient will wake up with pain and a "locked" neck, with a significant loss of movement and "stuck" posture, despite there being no history of trauma or known mechanism of injury. Other than pain and reduced movement (usually more obvious in one or two directions), other symptoms include muscle spasm and possibly referred symptoms into the head, shoulder blade or arm.
Cervicalgia is a pain in the neck that does not radiate down to the arm. Symptoms include sharp pain in the neck, aching and pain when turning the head sideways. You may be prescribed a cervical collar to help the muscles to rest.
We will help to reduce spasm and restore range of movement through application of heat, gentle mobilisation and stretching techniques. Exercises will also be provided to assist in regaining normal movement and function of the neck.
Its is a most common condition following a motor vehicle accident or sporting injury where the neck is thrown violently forwards then backwards resulting in Muscle spasms restriction in movement and tenderness through affected areas- neck, shoulders, upper back. Pins and needles/numbness also may be present.
Treatment aims are to reduce inflammation and restore movement and strength of affected muscles.
It is caused by gradual and chronic wear and tear of the cervical spine. Changes to the discs or joints on either side of the neck can, over time, compress one or more nerve roots causing referred pain and pins and needles/numbness. Symptoms usually develop slowly but can occur suddenly and get worse quickly. Generally neck stiffness gets worse over time, associated with a mild, deep constant ache. Pain may get worse at night, in cold weather or after prolonged standing or sitting.
Risk factors include age; jobs that require heavy lifting / bending / twisting, or prolonged poor postures such as sitting at a desk/computer; past neck injury and surgery; and osteoporosis.
Physiotherapy can help by reducing symptoms of acute flare-ups and providing exercises to maintain joint mobility, strength and function.
Most people will suffer from back pain at some point in their lives. Accidents, falls and direct blows to the back can also cause back. Back pain includes pain from the neck to the tail-bone.
A direct blow to the back may result in a contusion - an injury in which the skin is not broken. Symptoms include pain, swelling or bruising over the area, difficulty in bending forwards, sideways or straightening. Muscle tears are graded according to the degree of the tear. With a grade 1 tear, you will feel tightness in the back, but may be able to walk properly and not have much swelling. Problems with walking and sudden twinges during activity may be symptoms of a grade 2 tear. There will also be some swelling and pain. With a grade 3 tear, pain is more severe and swelling appears immediately. Walking is difficult.
A physiotherapy evaluation for back pain includes a subjective history of the type of injury, symptoms and prior level of function. An objective assessment follows, which includes an examination of your posture, gait, active range of motion of the spine, strength, reflexes and muscle flexibility.
A treatment plan will involve
It is important that each injury be assessed by a physiotherapist as back pain is not a matter to be ignored. Our goal is to provide symptom relief, restore joint and soft tissue mobility and help return to your normal functional activities.
Spinal column is made up of a number of bones called vertebrae. Between these vertebrae are discs which prevent the bones from rubbing against each other during movement and act as shock absorbers during impact. In the lumbar spine (lower back), the discs are composed of a fibrous outer layer and a gel-like inner layer. When the outer layer becomes worn through overuse or injury, the inner layer can leak or "prolapse" out of the disc and cause pain. Sometimes all it takes is a sudden, forceful movement (such as bending or lifting) to put too much strain on an already weakened disc and cause severe pain. If the prolapsed substance touches a nerve, pain, weakness and reduced sensation can be felt along the nerve, usually down the buttock or leg. This is known as a sciatica. Staying active during the acute stages is preferred over bed rest, as long as the activity does not aggravate the pain. This is why an early visit to your physiotherapist is critical in repairing the disc and relieving pain.
Initial step would be assessment which would include posture evaluation and lifestyle practices. Pain-relieving modalities like ice packs and ultrasound will be prescribed to reduce discomfort followed by joint mobilisation and exercises to reduce stiffness, restore mobility and promote healing of the damaged disc. Exercises to increase mobility, muscle length, muscle strength and prevent further deterioration of the disc will be prescribed. Graded progressive core strengthening exercises that are started early to promote good posture and restore normal function.
Lumbar Spine Injuries
A lumbar spine injury may take the form of a muscle strain, in which the muscles are stretched or torn; or a lumbar sprain may occur in which the ligaments are torn. A lumbar spine injury leads to low back pain and loss of function and is the cause of most hospital visits. Low back pain that is accompanied by lower extremity weakness and/or loss of bladder or bowel control could be signs of a more serious injury.
The most common symptoms of a lumbar sprain or strain are:
A sprain or strain of the lumbar spine results in inflammation of the soft tissue and this leads to pain and muscle spasm. Muscle manipulation and joint mobilization would be started to reduce the stress on the injured part. Taping and cold compress also will help reduce muscle spasm.
Factors that contribute to lumbar spine injuries are:
The overall goals of physiotherapy would be to provide relief from the symptoms, normalise joint and soft tissue mobility and establish an effective exercise program for you. The physiotherapy evaluation looks at the progression of symptoms, mechanism of injury, posture and prior level of function. A physical examination will conducted to assess gait, active range of motion (AROM) of the spine and all extremities, strength, symmetry and tension signs. Treatment may involve pain management with ultrasound, manual therapy and positioning; stretching exercises to gain symmetry, posture correction, training in body mechanics, strengthening and conditioning to prepare the person to return to his normal daily activities.
Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord injury results in neurological damage below the level of the injury. In a complete injury there is loss of sensation and motor function; in an incomplete injury there is some preservation of the sensory and/or motor function below the level of the injury. The extent of dysfunction also depends on the location of the injury. For example, a lesion in the cervical spine results in quadriplegia - paralysis of the four limbs and trunk musculature. Injury to the lumbar spine generally results in paralysis of the legs and hips and in some cases may also involve the trunk. This type of dysfunction is known as paraplegia.
Spinal cord injuries may be caused by motor vehicle accidents, falls, high-impact sports injuries and diving accidents. Some diseases such as multiple sclerosis may also affect the normal functioning of the spinal cord. Physiotherapy plays a vital role in helping the spinal cord patient live a fairly functional existence. Focus will be on
As the name implies, this form of injury is very common in golfers and affects the inside of the elbow on the bony prominence called the medial epicondyle. Golfer's elbow can be compared with tennis elbow which affects the bony prominence on the outer part of the elbow, called the lateral epicondyle
Tennis elbow is an overuse injury caused by bending the wrist backward as in tennis, badminton or squash and but also affects people who do not play tennis at all. Symptoms include:
We will help you identify the mechanism of injury and develop techniques to prevent further injury. Intervention focuses on pain management with the use of ultrasound or laser. Once the symptoms have subsided, gentle stretching exercises can begin. Isometric exercises and graded resistance exercises with equipment, Thera-band will be introduced gradually to strengthen the muscles.
When the wrist, Finger or Thumb is bent out of its normal range the ligaments, which hold the bones together, can be damaged, resulting in a sprain. Sprains are most common from falls or sporting injuries. Immediate symptoms of a sprain are generally pain, swelling and bruising at the affected joint.
Ice packs and compression (RICE) are the best treatments immediately following injury. Recovery should then be aided by physiotherapy treatment. We will perform passive stretching and mobilising techniques to regain full mobility and provide you with specific exercises to restore normal range and strength. Most sprains resolve within 4-6 weeks.
Carpal tunnel is a condition in which the median nerve becomes compressed where it passes through the wrist. It is more common in women and in the 30-60 year old age group.
Risk factors include repetitive wrist and hand movements e.g. typing/using a mouse, certain sports, using hand tools (especially when vibration is involved) and playing an instrument. Other factors that increase the risk of carpel tunnel include pregnancy, previous injury to the wrist or hand and arthritis.
The median nerve supplies feeling and movement to the hand, so symptoms of this condition may include numbness and tingling in the hand; pain in the wrist and hand, or possibly extending to the elbow; problems with fine finger movements/coordination; weakness in the hand and weak grip or difficulty carrying objects.
The condition is treated with Taping techniques, and possibly the provision of a splint. Gentle massage and mobilisation of the wrist can give short term relief, but in some cases surgery to release the pressure on the nerve may be required. The most successful way to reduce symptoms is to assess the ergonomics of your workplace or household. Corrections to mouses, keyboards, posture and how you perform activities may be required. Changes in your work duties or recreational activities may also be necessary to reduce symptoms.
Iliotibial Band Injuries
The Iliotibial (IT) band is the thick sheath of connective tissue that runs from the hip bone (femur) down the outside of the thigh and attaches to the outside of the shin bone(tibia). It acts to extend (straighten) the leg and abduct the hip (move it sideways). As this band passes over the bony part on the outside of the knee, it causes friction which leads to pain. Iliotibial band syndrome is sometimes referred to as runners knee or Iliotibial band friction syndrome which all mean the same thing.
Symptoms of Iliotibial band syndrome are:
Causes of this type of injury are:
A rehabilitation program and changes to your practice routine can bring about positive results. Rehabilitation will consist of therapeutic massage and/or dry needling to relieve tightness in the IT band and get rid of trigger points in the gluteus (hip muscles). Strengthening of the hip abductors (muscles that move the hip outwards) are also critical to relieving this condition. The athlete can rest and apply cold therapy to the knee to reduce pain. Minimizing downhill running or eliminating it altogether will also be helpful. Wearing an orthotic support to reduce over-pronation is often recommended. IT band syndrome is a condition that takes a long time to go away, months or even more than a year. Even after symptoms appear to cease, you still need to continue with prescribed exercises. It is therefore imperative that you consult a physiotherapist to help you get on the road to recovery and diagnose the causative factor leading to this problem . He/she will guide you in the proper way to stretch - you should not overstretch - and perform the strengthening exercises.
The hamstring refers to one of the tendons associated muscles at the back of the knee. The hamstrings cross and act upon the hip and the knee. They play a critical role in daily activities such as running, walking, jumping and controlling some trunk movement. The function of the hamstrings is to extend the hip and flex (bend) the knee. A hamstring strain also called a pulled hamstring is common in sports that involve sprinting such as hurdle jumping, football and rugby.
Symptoms of a pulled hamstring are:
Hamstring strains are graded according to severity.
Early stretching exercises should performed within the pain-free range to aid in decreasing swelling. Massage techniques to increase blood flow to the area and speed recovery, as well as Phonoporosis and electric stimulation to provide deep heat and relax the muscles. Starting on a rehabilitation program that will help prevent further injury.
The calf muscle is made up of the gastrocnemius muscle which is the big muscle at the back of the lower leg and the soleus, the smaller one located just below the gastrocnemius. These muscles can become injured or torn due to poor stretching or overuse. Calf strain is common in athletes, especially runners.
Symptoms of calf strain are:
Physiotherapy treatment involves pain management, stretching and strengthening exercises. Legs will be tested for flexibility and balance. Cold compress and ultrasound to relieve pain will be used before beginning stretching exercises. Training in the proper way to stretch the calf muscles to get rid of tightness will follow. Manual therapy may also be performed to get rid of trigger points.
Headache originating from structures in the neck are known as cervicogenic headaches. It is felt as a constant dull ache at the back of the head, forehead, behind the eye or off to one side. It may be associated with stiffness with or without neck pain and with occasional dizziness, nausea and light headedness.
Physiotherpay treatment includes treating the affected structures in the neck with gentle techniques including mobilisation,soft tissue release, Trigger point therapy and home based exercises to reduce and eliminate headache and other symptoms affecting headache. Postural retraining exercises plays a vital role in alleviating the problem.
The clavicle or collarbone is the bone that connects the chest to the upper arm. Together with the humerus (arm bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade) it makes up the shoulder joint. The clavicle can be broken during a fall where the person lands on the side. This commonly happens during contact sports, cycling and winter sports.
Symptoms of this type of injury include:
Whether a fracture is simple or compound will determine the treatment method. Most fractures heal by themselves without surgery. A simple fracture maybe treated by immobilising the arm in a sling for 6-8 weeks. Once the pain subsides, we would begin passive range of motion to prevent stiffness and promote range of motion. Strengthening exercises will follow to restore proper joint function.
A compound fracture of the clavicle often requires surgery to fix the bones with pins or plates. Physiotherapy begins immediately after surgery to promote the healing process. Passive ranges of motion will be performed, followed by active range of motion when pain subsides. Strengthening exercises and activities of daily living make up the latter part of the program. The fracture should be completely healed after two or three months.
Shoulder injuries are common among athletes such as baseball players, golfers, cricketers who overuse their arm in their sporting activities. Players of contact sports like football and rugby are also susceptible to shoulder injuries. This article highlights some of the most common shoulder injuries.
A dislocated shoulder is a very common injury that can occur during contact sports such as football, rugby or judo. Pain accompanies the event and the person has a feeling of the shoulder 'popping out'. The shoulder will have to be relocated by your doctor to prevent further complications. Resting the shoulder in a sling is recommended and according to the extent of the injury, surgery may be indicated. Therapy focuses on shoulder strengthening once the pain is under control. A partially dislocated shoulder is called a subluxation and the joint may return to its normal position on its own, although there might be some signs of deformity
Rotator Cuff Injury
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles that work together to provide stability to the shoulder and to rotate the shoulder joint. Injury may occur during sudden forceful movement and the person may get a tearing feeling in the shoulder followed by pain down the arm. Abduction (moving the arm out to the side) will be difficult. Surgery may be required in some cases. A treatment plan will be designed to determine the type and extent of the injury. Ice, heat and ultrasound may be used to control pain. Wearing a sling helps to stabilise the shoulder. Pendulum exercises will help to improve range-of-motion and strengthen the shoulder. Functional activities such as ADLs form a major part of therapy.
Frozen shoulder (also known as adhesive capsulitis) is a condition characterised by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint. As the condition worsens, the shoulder's range of motion becomes markedly reduced.
Most often, frozen shoulder occurs with no associated injury.
Some risk factors for developing a frozen shoulder include age and gender (middle aged women are more susceptible), endocrine abnormalities (such as diabetes and thyroid problems), shoulder injury or surgery, and several systemic conditions such as heart disease and Parkinson's disease.
Most often, a frozen shoulder can be diagnosed on examination, and no special tests are needed. Frozen shoulder treatment primarily consists of pain relief and physiotherapy. Most patients find relief with simple steps, although the entire treatment process can take several months or longer.
Groin injuries involve the adductor muscles that go from the pelvis to the knee and help to bring the leg in toward the body. These muscles are used a lot during sprinting, kicking a ball, horseback riding and hurdling. A rupture or tear in the muscle can occur during these activities, leading to groin strain.
Symptoms are sudden, sharp groin pain, bruising or swelling and an inability to squeeze the legs together. In severe cases, walking may be difficult. As in all muscle tears, more severe cases will require physiotherapy intervention.
Another type of groin injury is inflammation of the adductor muscles that can result from a previous groin strain. Pain may begin at the top of the muscle and radiate down the leg. Pain is felt when the legs are pushed together with resistance or the hip is flexed (leg raised with knee bent) against resistance. There may be difficulty running, especially sprinting. For this type of groin pain, physiotherapy is indicated to prevent re-injury.
Rehabilitation will focus on pain management, with ultrasound or laser and stretching and strengthening exercises.
Surgery (Post Hip Fracture/Total Hip Replacement)
Physiotherapy can usually start immediately after surgery, whether its a Total Hip Replacement or surgical procedure for a hip or pelvic fracture or labral tear. Physiotherapy will start in the hospital itself and it is important to continue with rehabilitation once you are discharged from hospital to regain full movement and strength in the muscles around the hip and pelvis to get you back on your feet. We can help you restore normal movement and function and reduce the risk of ongoing pain and complications.
Referred pain symptoms are often experienced as a dull ache that is hard to localize and variable in severity or location. Pain or stiffness may be felt on the back or leg. Pins and needles in the leg or foot may be felt, and are a result of irritation to neural tissue.
We can provide a full assessment to clear the hip and groin and determine the actual area or structure of the body causing pain. This area will then be treated accordingly.
Commonly referred to as RSI (repetitive strain injury), tendonitis or tenosynovitis is a condition resulting in irritation and inflammation of the tendons at the wrist or thumb. Symptoms include pain and swelling over the inflamed tendon. Pain is usually worse when the tendon stretched and with repetitive movements of the wrist or thumb.
Treatment usually involves a period of immobilisation using a wrist splint to immobilise the wrist and/or thumb. Physiotherapists will introduce you to very specific graduated stretching and strengthening programme to slowly reload the tendon and restore normal function.
RSI is not always a result of what you do but how you do it. Corrections can be made to keyboards, mouse pads, work tools and posture and specific tasks can be altered to reduce the risk of repetitive strain.
A fracture is a break or crack in the bone. There are many mechanisms of injury, but the most common include punching or crush injuries, sports injuries, and when people try to catch themselves during a fall, landing hard on an outstretched hand.
A dislocation occurs when one of the bones of a joint is displaced. It is most common in the middle knuckle. Causes include a "jamming" force to the end of the finger e.g. ball may strike the tip of an outstretched finger)
Signs and symptoms of a finger or wrist fracture and/or dislocation include pain, tenderness and swelling. There is usually a loss of movement and the ability to clench your fist or grip objects. Some patients also report a coldness or numbness in the hand or fingers.
Following a fracture or dislocation reduction (in which the bones are manipulated back into alignment under anaesthetic), the affected joints may be immobilised for a period of time with a splint or cast. If the fracture is severe, surgery may be required to regain proper position of your bones. After your cast or splint is removed, we will provide you with exercises and therapy to reduce stiffness and restore movement in the wrist and hand. In Treatment can usually start immediately post surgery.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries
The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of the four main ligaments in the knee. It binds the back of the thigh bone (femur) to the front of the shin bone (tibia) and prevents the knee from moving excessively in relation to the femur. If the ACL is damaged the knee becomes unstable and feels like if it is "giving out". ACL injury is a very common sports injury.
The symptoms of an ACL injury are:
Treatment for an ACL injury may necessitate surgery or reconstruction, or it may be non-surgical. Non-surgical intervention includes the wearing of a knee brace to provide stability and physiotherapy. If surgery is indicated, a pre-surgery program will be implemented to help strengthen the joint and reduce swelling, thereby ensuring a successful surgery. Following surgery, the joint loses flexibility and the muscles around the knee tend to atrophy (or get smaller).
The patient undergoes planned Rehab protocol which includes strength training, proprioception training, flexibility training and core stability exercsies to get him back to his normal sport or functional activities.
Kneecap (Patella Femoral) Pain
The knee is the largest joint in the body and the most easily injured. The kneecap (patella) fits in a groove between where the femur (thighbone) meets the tibia (shin bone). The knee is also made up of ligaments, which connect bones and help control motion. Kneecap pain or patellofemoral syndrome is pain in and around the kneecap or patella of the knee. Irritation to the soft tissues in front of the knee, or a breakdown of the cartilage can lead to pain. Dull pain is felt under the kneecap and is usually the result of overuse. Pain tends to worsen when ascending or descending stairs and when running downhill. The knee might stiffen after sitting for a long time. Weakness and tightness in the quadriceps, hamstrings and calf muscles, as well as flat feet and over-pronation may lead to this problem.
Other symptoms of patellofemoral pain syndrome are:
Knee braces and orthotic foot supports may be prescribed. Sometimes surgery may be required to relieve pain.
Therapy will involve the use of ultrasound, laser, or electrical stimulation, taping techniques to stabilise the knee and stretching and strengthening exercises. It is very important to strengthen the vastus medialis (oblique) muscle to provide stability to the knee. Isometric (static) contractions work best.
Some ways to prevent patellofemoral pain are:
Osteoarthritis / Total Knee Replacement
Osteoarthritis or Degenerative Arthritis occurs when the cartilage at the end surfaces of our bones gradually wears away, becoming rough or thin. Pain results from the inflamed surrounding tissues attempting to repair the damage. Inflammatory processes in the capsule produce extra fluid, causing swelling and the damaged bones produce extra bone, causing spurs. The ligaments also slowly thicken and contract.
Risk is increased if you are over 40, overweight, have a family prevalence of the disease, have had a previous injury to the affected joint, or if your joints have been damaged by another disease (Osteoporosis, Rheumatoid, Gout) or prolonged physical activity.
Symptoms include pain, swelling and stiffness, reduced range of movement at the joint, and a grating or grinding sensation between the joints known as crepitus. Symptoms may worsen with cold weather or humidity.
Depending on the stage and severity of your osteoarthritis, we can help to maintain range of movement and function through an exercise program.
If your Osteoarthritis is advanced, a Total Knee Replacement may be required. This is a surgery in which the damaged parts of the knee are replaced with implants.
Osteoarthritis / Total Knee Replacement
Physiotherapy is necessary post knee surgery (such as total knee replacement, arthroscopy, ligament reconstruction) in order to:
Post operative rehab is usually started immediately after the surgery. It will need to be followed by an appropriate plan as an outpatient for optimum results.
A type of overuse injury common in runners and walkers, shin splints are a result of inflammation of the attachment of the lower leg muscles to the tibia (shin bone).
Risk factors include over-training (sudden increase in distance or intensity), inadequate footwear and poor biomechanics of the legs and feet. Pain is usually felt in the front of the outer leg, below the knee (next to the shin bone). There is usually a focal area of pain, which is generally worse at the beginning of a training session, eases, then becomes worse again towards the end of a training session. The muscles connecting to the shin bone can be very tender.
Treatment generally requires a period of relative rest. Continued activity can result in worsening of symptoms, and stress fractures to the tibia may result.
Physiotherapy treatment includes muscle release stretches and taping techniques.
Achilles Tendon Injuries
The Achilles tendon, also called the heel cord, connects leg muscles to the heel bone, allowing you to walk and run. Achilles tendonitis is a common injury among runners, but may also occur in people with pronated feet, high arches, tight calf muscles and those who wear inflexible running shoes. It is a very painful condition and if one continues to put pressure on the tendon, it may snap, often with a loud popping sound.
The primary symptom of an Achilles tendon injury is pain to the back of the heel, which increases with exercise and lessens when exercise stops. Achilles tendonitis also manifests itself with warmth, swelling and tenderness at the site. Range of motion may be limited. Achilles tendonitis can lead to small tears in the tendon, making it susceptible to rupture. Achilles tendon ruptures are most often seen among middle-aged people who play a sport on weekends or in their spare time.
Symptoms of Achilles tendon rupture are:
A sprain is a tear in a ligament, whereas a strain results when a muscle or tendon is torn. It is important to get a professional diagnosis, since there may be damage to tendons, bones and other joint tissues in addition to ligament damage. Ankle sprains may be caused by weak ankles, a condition some people are born with. Previous foot injuries may also lead to ankle sprains.
Ankle sprains can be divided into three categories of severity:
This involves some stretching of the ligament, little or no instability, mild pain and swelling on the outside of the ankle and some stiffness and difficulty walking.
There is moderate stretching of the ligament, some instability, pain and swelling, stiffness and difficulty walking.
There is total rupture of the ligament, gross instability of the joint, severe pain initially then no pain and severe swelling.
First aid treatment of the sprain will involve RICE (rest,apply ice and Compression and elevate the area. )
Physiotherapy can help with pain management and treatment of the injury to restore your functional independence.
Intervention will involve the PRICE protocol.
Once the swelling and pain are reduced, stretching and strengthening exercises can begin and weight bearing will be increased. We will train you in the proper use of crutches and how to bear weight gradually. Training in sitting and getting up from a chair, climbing stairs and curbs with crutches, forms part of your therapy sessions. Exercises to help you return to full function will follow until the end of treatment.
Plantar Fasciitis Injuries
Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the fascia (thick band of tissue) at the bottom of the foot where it attaches to the heel bone. This is common in athletes who do a lot of running and jumping. It is a gnawing pain or discomfort in the heel that radiates along the sole of the foot. It is also associated with flat feet, over pronation, obesity and jobs that require a lot of walking over hard surfaces. Shoes with little or no arch support and inactivity may also contribute to this condition.
Symptoms of plantar fasciitis are:
It is important to rest the foot, as continuing to bear weight on it can aggravate the injury and cause inflammation. Cold compress helps to reduce pain and inflammation.
Physiotherapists will assess the biomechanics of the foot and make recommendations. If there is over pronation, orthotics maybe prescribed. Taping is another effective physiotherapy intervention. It helps by giving support, especially if you cannot stay off your feet. Gentle stretching will be started on the first day of treatment if pain will allow. Stretching is done not only for the fascia, but also for all the muscles of the lower leg, especially the calf muscle, as tight calf muscles can lead to pronation of the foot with its attendant problems mentioned above.
The metatarsals are the five long bones of the foot. Athletes who run and jump a lot may be susceptible to metatarsalgia or stone bruise, a condition that manifests itself in pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. Wearing shoes with soles that are too thin for the activity can lead to metatarsalgia.
Causes of Metatarsalgia:
Physiotherapy treatment will begin with assessing your gait and correction of uneven distribution of pressure on the metatarsals. Properly fitting shoes and doctor-prescribed orthoses to correct over-pronation maybe recommended.
Treatment would also included stretching and strengthening exercises to correct tightness in the tendons and massage to relieve pain and tightness in the metatarsal area Although not a very serious condition, metatarsalgia if left untreated, can lead to pain in the other foot or lower back pain because of the altered gait.